On June 23, the German Shepherd participating in the running competition at the Xianghe Manor Competition Field in Taierzhuang Ancient City, Zaozhuang City, Shandong Province.
In our daily life, we often encounter many small animals, and animal bites and stings may cause serious harm to human health and even endanger life. The World Health Organization reports that tens of millions of people are injured by dog bites each year, and children are at the highest risk. The consequences of animal bites are related to the type and health status of the animal, the health status of the bitten, and whether the correct and timely medical treatment can be obtained.
what measures should be taken immediately when bitten by cats, dogs and other animals?
1. clean the wound as soon as possible to reduce infection. If it is a small wound, immediately rinse it thoroughly with clean water or soapy water. The rinse time should not be less than 20 minutes. Clean the blood and animal saliva contaminated on the wound. If the wound is large and the soft tissue is seriously damaged, it is not advisable to over-flush to prevent major bleeding.
2. squeeze the wound. If the wound is in a place where it can be squeezed, it should be squeezed out of the wound while washing to prevent the virus from entering the body.
3. disinfect as soon as possible. After washing, you should use alcohol or iodine to disinfect the wound inside and outside as soon as possible, and the wound should not be bandaged after disinfection.
4. after simple treatment, the bitten should be sent to the hospital for rabies vaccine as soon as possible, and tetanus antitoxin should be injected as appropriate, preferably for no more than 24 hours.
After being bitten by a cat or dog, vaccination against rabies is crucial. Because rabies is a fatal disease, it is preventable but not treatable. After being bitten by a cat or dog with unknown health, vaccinating rabies can effectively prevent the occurrence of rabies. There are no contraindications to rabies vaccination, but the doctor needs to inquire about the individual’s condition (whether there is a history of severe allergies, whether there are other serious diseases) before vaccination. Even if there is a situation that is not suitable for vaccination, it should be vaccinated under close supervision.
At present, there are two types of vaccines, “5 shots” and “4 shots”, and there is no special difference between the two in terms of effects and adverse reactions. Inoculation time of “5-shot method”: 1 injection each on the day of exposure, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days after exposure, totaling 5 injections. “2-1-1” procedure: 2 injections on the day of exposure (1 injection for the left and right upper arm deltoid muscles), 1 injection each on the 7th and 21st days after exposure, for a total of 4 injections.
What are the precautions during vaccination ?
There are the following precautions during vaccination:
1. Try to complete the vaccination in the same institution and strictly follow the vaccination time.
2. Try not to keep the vaccine yourself, and do not bring the vaccine yourself to be vaccinated offsite.
3. If it is not possible to vaccinate in the same institution, try to use the same vaccine.
4. The entire vaccination process must be completed. If the same vaccine cannot be used, the vaccine should also be replaced to complete the entire vaccination process.
5. If the vaccination cannot be made on time, the vaccination can be delayed by one or several days, and the subsequent vaccination time will continue to be extended according to the time interval of the original immunization program.
The safety of the rabies vaccine is relatively good overall, mainly due to minor adverse reactions such as local redness and induration. A few people will experience systemic symptoms such as transient fever. Serious adverse reactions are rare. After vaccination, you should pay attention to rest and keep warm. If an adverse reaction occurs, you should go to the hospital in time.
Source: Shaanxi Science and Technology Press
This article is scientifically checked by Wang Mingxu, director of the Health Development and Reform Center of Xi’an Jiaotong University.