What is Diabetes ?
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease, and many patients do not experience obvious symptoms, but if left alone, the complications are often quite difficult. Most of the complications of diabetes are caused by poor blood sugar control, so the most important thing for diabetics is to follow the doctor’s instructions to take medication or insulin, plus maintain good habits, exercise more, do not smoke or drink, and have a light and balanced diet. Blood sugar can be effectively controlled.
Speaking of diabetes, what do you think of? The top ten causes of death for Chinese people, insulin, eating more, drinking more, and urinating…
None of this is wrong, but diabetes is far more complicated than you think. But don’t worry, this article will let you understand the causes, symptoms and risk groups of diabetes, and then learn about prevention methods!
Highlights of this article:
- Causes of diabetes
- Diabetes symptoms
- High-risk groups of diabetes
- 4 types of diabetes
- Diabetes diagnostic criteria
- Treat diabetes
- Diabetes complications
- Prevent diabetes
Why do you get diabetes?
Insulin can bring the glucose in the blood into the cells and use it as energy for cell operation.
We can imagine that lychee is glucose, court ladies are insulin, and royal concubines are cells. It is impossible for the imperial concubine to go to the market to buy lychees by herself, so the court lady is responsible for bringing the lychees to the imperial concubine for consumption.
There are two main factors that can prevent glucose from entering the cells and stay in the blood, making blood sugar high.
Insufficient insulin supply in the body
When the body’s insulin supply is insufficient, glucose cannot be used by the insulin supply cells, and stays in the blood, which will keep blood sugar higher than normal. Type 1 diabetes is caused by your own immune system attacking pancreatic cells, resulting in insufficient insulin secretion.
Insulin resistance is the abnormal utilization of insulin by cells. Insulin cannot effectively metabolize glucose, causing glucose to be retained in the blood. The kidney cannot fully recover it and remains in the urine.
Since cells cannot get enough energy, the body thinks that it should make more insulin to carry glucose, so it makes insulin around the clock. But the problem is that the cells have already low response to insulin, so they still can’t get enough energy, and the body will lose weight quickly.
Ninety percent of diabetes is caused by insulin resistance. The cause may be related to excess fat, heredity, and old age.
It is said that the imperial concubine (tissue cells) has been fed a lot of lychees (glucose) for a long time. Not only has she been tired of eating, but her body has gradually become plump, and she feels nauseous (insulin resistance) when she sees the palace maid sending lychees again.
The emperor only saw the litchi piled up in the entire treasury, thinking that the maid (insulin) was insufficient, and it was difficult to carry the litchi. Fearing that the imperial concubine was hungry, he recruited more court ladies (insulin) to transport lychees to the palace. But the imperial concubine didn’t want to eat it just didn’t want to eat it, and occasionally swallowed one or two. So even though there are many ladies and many lychees in the palace, the imperial concubine is getting thinner day by day. (Body tissues cannot absorb energy)
What are Diabetes symptoms ?
- Eat more
- Drink more
- Weight loss
The above warning messages are commonly referred to as the “three more and one less” of diabetes. In addition, diabetes may have the following symptoms:
- Fatigue easily, weakness and paralysis of limbs
- Itching of skin and sexual organs
- Vision loss
- Reduced resistance, skin lesions, poor wound healing
However, there are usually no symptoms in the early stage of diabetes. Nearly one-third of people do not know that they are already sick. Therefore, regular health checks are required to detect diabetes early.
Why do people with diabetes still feel hungry and thirsty after eating and drinking too much?
Even if a diabetic patient eats a large amount of food, insulin does not respond well to the cells and cannot make glucose available to the cells, so the patient still feels hungry.
In addition, the urine contains sugar, causing osmotic diuresis. When the urine volume increases abnormally, the body’s water loss will accelerate, causing thirst. Therefore, if the blood sugar does not drop, thirst will continue.
What is high-risk groups for diabetes ?
In addition to diabetes is related to genetic factors, lifestyle also has a great influence. Take a closer look at the following high-risk groups. Which ones can be avoided?
The nicotine in cigarettes can inhibit insulin secretion and increase blood sugar. Drinking alcohol on an empty stomach may cause hypoglycemia. Drinking alcohol after meals may have a high blood sugar risk.
Women who have had gestational diabetes
15% to 50% of women with relevant medical history will develop type 2 diabetes in the future.
Being in a state of high pressure for a long time will cause abnormal secretion of hormones, hinder the operation of insulin, and increase the risk of elevated blood sugar.
If there is a history of diabetes in the family, the chance of developing diabetes will be higher than that of ordinary people.
Over 40 years old
- This is the age at which type 2 diabetes occurs.
- High blood pressure, high blood fat
If the diet prefers heavy taste and big fish and meat, the concentration of high-density cholesterol (HDL-C) in the blood will decrease, which will increase the bad cholesterol, low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), which will not only cause high blood pressure , Hyperlipidemia and other diseases may also cause diabetes.
Overweight and lack of exercise
Obesity will reduce the ability of cells to use insulin (insulin resistance) and increase blood glucose concentration.
Four types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes stems from abnormalities in the body’s immune system. Antibodies become indifferent to enemy and self and begin to attack the pancreatic β-cells that produce insulin, causing the pancreas to be unable to secrete or secrete only a small amount of insulin.
The age of onset of type 1 diabetes is usually under 30 years old, and the reason may be the result of the combined effect of genetic and environmental factors. The number of patients is relatively small (approximately less than 5% of the total patient population), and patients will have obvious symptoms such as weight loss, weight loss, polyuria, and frequent thirst. They need long-term insulin to control their condition.
Type 2 diabetes
More than 90% of diabetic patients belong to type 2 diabetes. Patients often have no symptoms in the early stage of the disease. Usually, the long-term illness leads to physical changes or complications of diabetes.
This type of diabetes is hereditary, patients are usually older than 40 years old, and often have the external characteristics of obesity.
Patients with type 2 diabetes often have bad habits (such as drinking, smoking, not exercising, eating heavy tastes, etc.), causing the body to resist insulin or decrease insulin secretion. In order to control the disease, in addition to administering insulin or taking drugs, it is also necessary to change living habits.
About 5% of women will experience temporary symptoms of diabetes during pregnancy. The reason is that hormonal changes in the body make cells resist insulin, but the symptoms usually disappear after delivery.
It should be noted that if the mother suffers from gestational diabetes during pregnancy but is not properly treated, it will indirectly cause the fetus to show a high blood sugar state and increase the probability of fetal congenital malformations, stillbirth, and giant infants.
Pre-diabetes refers to the continuous blood glucose between normal and diabetes. Pre-diabetes usually have no obvious symptoms, but if they are not actively controlled, they can easily develop into diabetes.
How to detect type 1 and type 2 diabetes ?
If you suffer from type 1 diabetes with an abnormal immune system, the body’s ICA, Anti-GAD65, and ICA 512 antibodies will also be positive, which is a feature that type 2 diabetes does not have.
How to detect gestational diabetes ?
As for gestational diabetes related to pregnant women, in order to determine whether they are ill, doctors will check the women’s blood glucose levels during the first birth check after pregnancy and from the 24th to 28th weeks. The test methods are fasting blood glucose level and oral glucose tolerance test. If there is an over-standard issue, it means that you have gestational diabetes.
how to treat diabetes ?
Depending on the situation, doctors will have different treatment methods. For patients with type 1 diabetes, the current treatment is long-term insulin administration to control the condition.
As for patients with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes, apart from administering insulin, oral medications can also be used to improve their symptoms.
Is it safe to administer insulin?
As long as it is administered according to the instructions of doctors and pharmacists, it is safe, and the current pen-type insulin needles are very convenient to use and have low pain.
Many patients with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan tend not to take insulin because they think that insulin is a poor control of their condition, or they think that insulin is the most serious treatment, and there will be no medicine afterwards. But in fact, these two concepts are both. Is wrong. Insulin administration is a more effective method with less burden on the body. Insulin administration is not the last-line treatment process, but can be used for any course of the disease. The doctor will formulate a treatment plan in the most beneficial way for the patient. It is effective in controlling blood sugar and avoiding complications.
Insulin analogues are a kind of modification to the structure of insulin to change the biological and physical and chemical characteristics of insulin, which are more suitable for human needs than traditional insulin.
Also known as prandial insulin or fast-acting insulin, because of its short onset time, it can be injected 15 minutes before or after a meal. Because the duration of blood sugar lowering is also shorter, it can reduce the risk of hypoglycemia.
Taking diabetes medication
Diabetes medications are taken at different times. Some medications must be taken during or after meals, or before meals, and some medications must be taken on an empty stomach. They should be taken in accordance with the instructions of doctors and pharmacists to control blood sugar stably.
How to prevent diabetes?
- Mainly “less oil, less salt, less sugar, high fiber”
- Avoid overeating and reduce the intake of high cholesterol foods (such as animal offal), processed foods, sugary foods, etc.
- Reject cooking methods with high oil content such as frying and frying, and replace animal fats with vegetable fats
- Drink less sugary drinks, plain water is the best choice
- Quit smoking and alcohol
- Regularly check blood sugar, blood pressure and blood lipids
- Blood sugar part: the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients should be controlled below 7%
- Blood pressure part: Under resting conditions, if the blood pressure is continuously higher than 140 (systolic blood pressure)/90 (diastolic blood pressure) mmHg, it is called hypertension
- Blood lipids: low-density cholesterol (LDL-C) should be controlled below 130mg/dl
- Regular exercise
Refer to the “333 principle”, that is, exercise more than 3 times a week, at least 30 minutes each time, and reach a state of 130 pulses per minute. You can choose to walk, walk, jog, swim, bike, etc. The best exercise time is about half an hour after a meal, or eat some snacks before exercise. Do not exercise on an empty stomach, so as to avoid hypoglycemia symptoms due to insufficient blood sugar.
How to Maintain ideal weight ?
Pay attention to the body fat rate. For men aged 18 to 30, the normal value is 14% to 20%. For men over 30, the normal value is 17% to 25%; for women aged 18 to 30, the normal value is 17% to 25%. The normal value for women over 30 years old is 20% to 30%.
As for the waist circumference, the normal value for men should be less than 90 cm, and for women it should be less than 80 cm.
How to Adjust stress ?
Stress can cause abnormal hormone secretion, causing glycogen in the body to be broken down into blood sugar, increasing the risk of diabetes. Therefore, to relieve stress in a healthy way in a timely manner, exercise is a good option, and eating and drinking will only bring a higher risk of diabetes.
Join hands to fight age-old diseases
Maybe you don’t know that the history of diabetes may be as long as that of the pyramids. In ancient Egypt in 1550 BC, people recorded that some patients had “polyuria” symptoms; and in the ancient Greek era in the second century AD, the philosopher Aris Dodd called this disease in the Latin word diabetes (meaning polyuria); in the fifth to sixth centuries AD, Chinese, Arab and Japanese doctors discovered another symptom of diabetes-sweet urine.
Although the record of diabetes spans thousands of years, its etiology and treatment are a product of modern times. Humans discovered that diabetes is related to insulin around 1900, and the first diabetic patient in history who was successfully rescued by “insulin injection” Appeared in 1922. In the past, diabetes has been an incurable disease.
In modern times, humans have more and more diversified methods to fight against diabetes, but the first step to prevent diabetes is to start with adjusting living habits.
Long knowledge: complications of diabetes
In terms of chronic complications, it can be divided into two types: “macrovascular disease” and “small vessel disease”.
Diabetes patients not only have high blood sugar, but also easily increase triglycerides and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C). These substances may cause atherosclerosis in blood vessels. At this time, blood vessels are prone to embolism and disease, which can increase stroke and high blood pressure. , Or the risk of myocardial infarction.
Macrovascular disease can also easily cause a series of diseases in the patient’s foot. If the blood flowing into the feet is reduced, the patient will find that the pulse of the feet becomes weaker and the temperature drops. In addition, the wounds that appear on the feet are not easy to heal and are prone to infection.
Common patients face the fate of amputation due to long-term ischemia of the foot or foot ulcers caused by bacterial infection.
Small vessel disease
Small vessel disease refers to the damage of capillaries due to diabetes. The common lesions are the eyes, kidneys, and nervous system.
Since the blood carries oxygen, when the microvessels are diseased and blood flow is reduced, the nerves will also be hypoxic, and various symptoms will appear depending on the type of nerve.
Sensory nerves: numbness of hands and feet, dull sense of touch, cold and heat, and poor balance
Autonomic nerves: dry skin, abnormal perspiration, weak urination or even incontinence, sexual dysfunction
Motor nerves: reduced mobility of fingers and toes, muscle weakness and atrophy
The retina is full of capillaries. Once these capillaries are damaged due to diabetes, the patient is prone to fatigue, itchy eyes, blurred vision, and in severe cases, blindness or other eye diseases such as glaucoma and cataracts.
High blood sugar may also harden the capillaries of the kidneys, which not only damages kidney function, but may also cause kidney failure and uremia. If the patient finds an increase in urine protein excretion during the test, it is likely to be kidney disease caused by diabetes.
When the blood circulation is poor, the body’s immunity will decrease, and saliva secretion will also decrease, resulting in an increase in the number of oral bacteria and even periodontal disease.
Severe periodontal disease may also increase the body’s resistance to insulin, making it difficult to control blood sugar, and exacerbating the vascular disease caused by diabetes. The two diseases form a vicious circle.
After suffering from type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes, if blood sugar is not well controlled, a high blood sugar state may occur. Although the primary goal of diabetes control is to lower blood sugar, if you accidentally drop too much during treatment (such as overuse of insulin, missed meals, etc.), it will cause symptoms of hypoglycemia.
The patient has symptoms such as dehydration, dry skin, abdominal discomfort, and unconsciousness. If it is not sent to the doctor within 24 to 48 hours, it will be life-threatening. It often occurs in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes with poor blood sugar control. This condition is commonly known as “ketoacidosis.”
When the blood glucose, blood concentration, and osmotic pressure in the body gradually increase, the patient will experience symptoms of dehydration and confusion, and may even cause acute renal failure. Mainly occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes.
When hypoglycemia occurs, patients may experience dizziness, palpitations, tremors, nausea, and sweating. In severe cases, they may even become unconscious, go into shock, become a vegetative, or even die.
After reading the article, you may wish to test how much you know about diabetes