Spanish flu or Spanish flu of 1918, also known as pandemic Influenza is highly contagious and spreads quickly. Today we are talking about the “Spanish flu” that occurred in 1918-1919. The Spanish flu was divided into three waves. The first wave of Spanish flu occurred in the spring of 1918 and was a common influenza. The second wave of Spanish flu occurred in the fall of 1918, and was the wave with the highest mortality rate. The third wave of Spanish flu occurred between the winter of 1919 and the spring of 1920, and the mortality rate was in the middle of the first two waves.
Humans have experienced plagues again and again, but most are regional, and global epidemics are rare. The Spanish flu, which occurred 100 years ago, is the most widespread epidemic since written records in human history. 30% of the world’s population is infected, of which 100 million people die, and the death rate of infected people is as high as 20. 6% of the population.
The current data are as follows: India 17 million, accounting for 5% of the total population; Iran 2.43 million, accounting for 22% of the total population; Russia 1.7 million, accounting for 1% of the total population; Indonesia 1.5 million, accounting for 5% of the total population; 390,000 in Japan; 250,000 in the UK; 400,000 in France; 50,000 in Canada; 100,000 in Ghana; 9,000 in New Zealand. In Brazil, the Spanish flu killed 300,000 people, including President-elect Rodos Alves (1848-1919). In the United States, 28% of people are infected with the Spanish flu, of which 675,000 people die. In 1918, abnormal deaths caused by the Spanish flu reduced the life expectancy of the American population by 12 years.
Spanish flu history
Spanish flu history :It is reported that the disaster caused by the Spanish flu was the worst in the history of influenza epidemics and the plague with the largest number of deaths in history. At that time, the number of patients in the world was more than 500 million, the incidence rate was 20% -40%, and the number of deaths was as high as more than 40 million. Such a high number of deaths felt horrible when heard, more than the total number of people killed in the First World War. At that time, the main infected people were young adults aged 20-40, not the elderly and children.
It is reported that the world’s first influenza case occurred in a military fortress in the United States. Due to the poor sanitary conditions of the war, the immunity of the soldiers is reduced, and the environment in which the mice are rampant gives the virus a chance to multiply. At the time, at the end of the First World War, the outside world believed that the Spanish flu also originated from the war, and spread to Europe after the outbreak. It swept the world with fatal toxicity and repeated waves, and eventually broke out and spread in Spain.
Because of the severe flu at that time, 200,000 people died in the United States within a month, resulting in the average life expectancy of the United States being 12 years shorter than usual. A large number of people died from the flu in France, Britain, South America and Asia. In Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China, the death rate caused by influenza is as high as 10% Correspondingly, I can’t bear to hear it. “
Before the First World War, the number of deaths caused by diseases was usually higher than that of bullets and sabers. For example, in the Civil War, there were 200,000 soldiers who died in the war in places such as Cold Harbor and Small Fillet, but as many as 400,000 soldiers died of diarrhea / dysentery, pneumonia, typhoid and other diseases. It can be said that a large part of the deaths of soldiers in the war were caused by disease.
The Spanish flu is different from other epidemic infectious diseases in that young patients have a higher case fatality rate, while the elderly and infants and young children are mostly able to survive.
Between 1918 and 1919, 99% of people who died of Spanish flu in the United States were younger than 65 years, and half of them were between 20 and 40 years old. This is a major feature of influenza in Spain. The majority of other influenza-infected people are elderly people over 70 years old, infants under 2 years old and people with low immune function have a high mortality rate.
By 1997, the American scientist Jeffrey Taubegel published a research result in the “Science” weekly magazine, saying that the flu originated in the United States in 1918 was very similar to swine flu, and was similar to the influenza A (type A) virus ( H1N1) closely related viruses. After all, it is impossible to return to 1918.
Spanish flu symptoms
The first wave of the 1918 pandemic Spanish flue occurred in the spring. The initial symptoms were
- Illness or fever
- Sore head and tiredness
- Dry, hacking cough
- Loss of appetite
- Stomach problems
In the day of second was excessive sweating. Next, the disease affects the respiratory organs and may cause pneumonia.. Humphreys reported that pneumonia or other respiratory complications caused by the flu are usually the main cause of death. This suggests that the exact number of people killed by the flu is difficult to determine, as the listed cause of death is usually not the flu.
Spanish flu timeline:-
In 1918, a new influenza virus appeared. During the same period, the First World War was going on. The conditions of World War I (overcrowding and global army movement) helped spread the flu of 1918. The vulnerability of healthy youth and lack of vaccines and treatments has led to serious public health crises, causing at least 50 million deaths worldwide, including about 675,000 in the United States. Following is the historical timeline of the major events that occurred during this time.
At the time of World War I, the US armed forces numbered 378,000.
- Making a draft to increase the number of troops, the army began to train recruits in 32 large camps, each covering 25,000 to 55,000 soldiers.
- The first outbreak of flu-like disease was discovered in the United States.
- More than 100 soldiers received the flu at the Funston Camp in Fort Riley, Kansas. Within a week, influenza cases increased five fold.
- Over the next six months, sporadic influenza activity may spread unevenly in the United States, Europe, and even Asia.
- The second wave of influenza broke out at the Devens Camp, a US Army training camp outside Boston, and at naval facilities in Boston.
- Between September and November, the second wave of flu peaks in the United States. The second wave is fatal and is responsible for the majority of deaths in the epidemic.
- The New York City Health Commission has added influenza to the list of diseases that must be reported, and requested that all influenza cases be quarantined at home or in city hospitals.
- By the end of September, Devens Camp reported more than 14,000 cases of influenza, accounting for a quarter of the camp’s total, resulting in 757 deaths.
- In October alone, an estimated 1918 influenza pandemic virus killed 195,000 Americans.
- In the fall of 1918, there was a severe shortage of professional nurses in the United States due to the large number of nurses posted to military camps in the United States and abroad, and the absence of trained African American nurses.
- The American Red Cross Chicago branch issued an urgent appeal asking volunteers to help care for patients.
- Philadelphia was hit by pandemic influenza virus. More than 500 bodies were waiting to be buried, and some were buried for more than a week. The cold storage room was used as a temporary morgue, and the trolleybus manufacturer donated 200 boxes for use as a coffin.
- Chicago, as well as many other cities in the United States, closed theaters, movie theaters and night schools and banned public ceremonies.
- The San Francisco Health Commission requires anyone serving the public to wear masks and strongly advises all residents to wear masks in public places.
- New York City reported that shipyard productivity declined by 40% during World War I due to flu.
- As people celebrate Armistice Day and the morale of soldiers begins to decline, influenza was reinvested at the end of World War I.
- In Salt Lake City, officials indicated isolation at the front and back doors of 2,000 flu-affected homes.
- By the end of World War I, the size of the US Army had increased from 378,000 soldiers to 4.7 million soldiers in April 1918.
Public health officials launched educational programs and promotions about the dangers of coughing and sneezing;
- The Committee of the American Public Health Association encourages shops and factories to stop business hours and, where possible, walk people to work instead of using public transportation to prevent congestion.
- In the winter and spring of 1919, the third wave of influenza outbreaks led to more deaths. The third wave of summer stopped.
- In San Francisco, there were 1,800 cases of influenza and 101 deaths in the first five days of January.
- Many San Antonio citizens started complaining that no new cases of flu were reported, which contributed to another flu pandemic.
- There were 704 cases of influenza and 67 deaths in New York City, raising concerns of recurrence of severe influenza activity.
- Trustees at Boston Municipal Hospital asked the mayor to allocate a special $ 3,000 for the treatment of the flu.
- As the number of reported cases declined, the New Orleans flu seems to have basically ended.
- Illinois passed a bill to create a one-year curriculum to become a “practical nurse” in an effort to address the shortage of nursing care exposed by the epidemic.
• At the Versailles Peace Conference, US President Woodrow Wilson collapsed at the end of World War I in negotiations with First World leaders. Some historians speculate that he was not affected by the flu, which is still common in Paris.
Spanish flu vaccine
During the 1918–1919 pandemic, the use of the vaccine in the United States reflected the fate of the Fifefer bacteria as a possible cause of influenza. By 1918, the successful use of some vaccines, particularly rabies, typhoid and diphtheria, and the use of diphtheria antitoxin, had high expectations for influenza vaccines. 12 As an effective way to prevent or cure the flu, they soon became ineligible to promote their vaccines. Drug manufacturers actively promote their reserved vaccines for colds, woes and flu. The ingredients of these vaccines have not been disclosed. Due to public unrest and increased demand, people started complaining about price fraud and discounts. 13 (p. 114–6) such as m. J. Exner actively promoted this vaccine in newspaper interviews and recommendations developed by his colleague Alice Bonim nearly six years ago. 14,15 Bonaim is a late advocate of tuberculosis in the treatment of tuberculosis, and an opsonin immune response and 16 his vaccine is said to prevent pneumonia, influenza and blood poisoning. There were some benefits from Exner’s boosterism. At least one city, Far Rockaway, New York, announced that it would provide the Bonime vaccine to all citizens
In the early days of the epidemic, the authorities were respected by more people and p. A vaccine was developed on the basis of Fifefer. On October 2, 1918, New York City Health Commissioner Robert S. Copeland attempted to reassure the citizens that aid was under way because William H.W. Park, director of the Ministry of Health’s laboratory, was developing a vaccine. The success of antitoxins and vaccines developed in these laboratories against diphtheria in 18 laboratories made Coupland’s declaration of this goal very important. Park explained to his colleagues that he and his staff have always been able to isolate Pfeiffer’s bacillus from influenza cases, and that his lab has isolated the current strain, indicating that animals injected with the strain Specific antibodies are produced. And developed a heat-inactivated vaccine, taking three doses of 19 every two days.
Park is not the only Pfeiffer’s influenza vaccine that first appeared during the epidemic. At Tufts Medical College in Boston, Timothy Leary, professor of bacteriology and pathology, received another p. Bacillus vaccine is developed. They were isolated from three locally isolated strains and killed by heat and chemically treated. Leary promoted his vaccine, which can prevent and treat the flu. 20 Later other Pfeiffer vaccines were also released. Teachers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine isolated 13 strains of Bacillus vulgaris and produced the vaccine by modifying the technology used by the park. In an environment of epidemic crisis, Pittsburgh vaccine developers tested toxicity on individual strains, prepared vaccines, some laboratory animals and two people and then handed them over to the Red Cross for human use within a week. 13 (pages 109–11) in New Orleans, Charles W. Duval and William H. of the Department of Pathology and Bacteriology at the University of Tulane. Harris developed his own chemically killed Pfeiffer vaccine. The reason for using this vaccine is that Bacillus is prevalent in cases of influenza and follows the schedule of typhoid vaccines (21).
It is not only the bacteria in charge of the laboratory that adopted the hypothesis that Bacillus phenanthrenes is the cause of influenza, and developed a vaccine based on this hypothesis. Some private doctors do the same. Horace Greeley of Brooklyn, New York, reported that he isolated 17 strains of bacteria from 17 patients and applied a heat-inactivated vaccine from these “strains”. In increasing doses. He used it to vaccinate his patients, and then distributed eight liters to colleagues performing similar operations. 22
These vaccines are widely used. Parker’s vaccine has been distributed to the military for use by military camps and private doctors. It is also used as a company policy for industrial workers, including 14,000 employees of the United Gas Corporation and 275,000 in the United States. Steel companies [17,19,23] often used Leary vaccines during the epidemic of national storage institutions and some private doctors in the Northeast. 13 (pages 105–7), 24–27 W. Duval and Harris report that about 5,000 people have been vaccinated, most of them employees of large New Orleans companies. 21 (p. 320–2) is almost without exception, and those who report the use of these Pfeiffer Bacillus vaccines report that they can effectively prevent influenza.
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